Is the target population carefully described?
? Are sample selection procedures clearly defined? Means how the participants are
? Does the sampling method fit the research design?
? Is the sample sufficiently large and appropriate for the research design?
? Did the author identify the response rate?
? Does the author describe the instruments used for data collection?
? Has rationale been given for the selection of instruments?
? Are instruments congruent with the research question?
? Have procedures for testing the reliability and validity of instruments been described?
? Does the author clearly describe the findings of the study
? Is the statistical result presented clearly both in the text as well as in numerical
presentation? Are graphic displays clear, simple, and accurate?
? Are results of data analysis clearly explained in reference to research questions,
hypothesis and theoretical framework?
? Are the research design and the study questions fit with the analysis methods used?
Discussion (Conclusions and Recommendations)
? Have the authors discussed their findings in relation to other previous research studies
? Have the authors identified the limitation of their study?
? What recommendations for nursing practice?
? Have the author mentioned the needs for future research studies? if not what future
research would you recommend based on your understanding about the article
? briefly state how could this research be used in practice
Protection of Human Rights
? Is there evidence of an independent ethics review by ethical or a research committee? ? Has the study been designed to minimize risk and maximize benefits to participants? ? Is there an indication that participants gave voluntary, informed consent?
? Is there evidence in the study that individuals can be identified?