Define Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary prevention.

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Define Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary prevention.

Define Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary prevention.

NR503 Week 1 Key Concepts Worksheet
Key Concepts Worksheet
Guidelines& Grading Rubric
Purpose
The purpose of this assignment is to identify key concepts in epidemiology that will assist the student in understanding the purpose of epidemiology as it relates to clinical
practice, surveillance and prevention of disease, and healthcare research.You will work on building a foundation of definitions and an understanding of how they apply to
monitoring disease in populations.
Course Outcomes
Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to:
(CO#1) Define key terms in epidemiology, community health, and population-based research.
Due Date:Sunday 11:59 p.m. (MT) at the end of Week 1
Total Points Possible:50
Requirements:
1. Complete the Epidemiological Key Concepts Worksheet.
2. For each question identify the correct answer and cite the source used to answer the questions
3. Submit the worksheet to the DropBox by 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 1
Course Information Worksheet
Prior to completing this worksheet, review the Week 1 lecture and reading assignments (Chapters 1-4 of your course text). Provide a complete answer to each question.
Each question is worth 5 points. Please cite the source of each answer below the answer as in the example provided below.
EXAMPLE:
Question: Modes of indirect common vehicle disease transmission includesingle exposure,multiple exposures, andcontinuous exposure.
Source:
Gordis, L. (2014). Epidemiology (5thed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. Chapter 2, p. 20.
1. Define Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary prevention.
2. True or False: Prevention and treatment of a single specific disease are exclusive activities that do not occur together when providing care to a patient.
3. The ________________ Concept is important because in counting incidence and prevalence of disease it is not sufficient to count only clinically apparent cases, but
those who are asymptomatic or exposed without infection.
4. Please define the following:
Clinical Disease –
Preclinical Disease –
Subclinical Disease –
Persistent (Chronic) Disease –
Latent Disease –
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NR503 All Assignments – March 2017
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5. Match the following terms with their definition:
____ Pandemic A. Habitual presence of a disease within a geographic area.
____ Endemic B. Occurrence of a disease in a community/geographic area in
excess of normal expectancy.
____ Common-Vehicle Exposure C. Resistance of a group of people to a disease because a large
portion of the population is immune.
____ Epidemic D. An excessive occurrence of disease present globally.
____ Herd Immunity E. When a group of people are exposed to a substance or organism that causes common illness.
6. What is the one medical advance that is associated with the Black Death in Europe in the late 1300’s?
7. This is a two part question:
A. Define, through a fractional representation, what attack rate is.
B. After a large wedding reception several people develop symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. It appeared to be tied to eating a specific seafood salad sered. Using the
following 2 by 2 table, numerically represent the attack ratefor wedding attendies who ate the seafood salad
Ate Seafood SaladDid not eat Seafood Salad
Gastroenteritis symptoms 72 15
No gastroenteritis symptoms24 135
8. Define the following: active surveillance, passive surveillance, incidence rate,and prevalence rate.
9. There are two parts to this question:
A. What are two reasons that the prevalence rate of a disease I a community could decrease?
B. What are age-adjusted death rates used for?
10. Name and define at least two measures of mortality as fractional representations.
NR503 Week 3 Relative Risk Calculation Worksheet
Relative Risk Calculations Worksheet
Guidelines& Grading Rubric
Purpose
The purpose of this assignment is to help you to begin to understand and apply the important counts, ratios, and statistics presented in healthcare and epidemiological
research. Remember to use the list of formulas presented prior to the problems and to carefully consider the purpose of each calculation and how it is interpreted.
Course Outcomes
Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to:
(CO #3) Identify appropriate outcome measures and study designs applicable to epidemiological subfields such as infectious disease, chronic disease, environmental
exposures, reproductive health, and genetics.
(CO #4) Apply commonly used measures of health risk.
(CO #6) Identify important sources of epidemiological data.
Due Date:Sunday 11:59 p.m. (MT) at the end of Week 3
Total Points Possible:50
Requirements:
1. Complete the Risk Calculation Worksheet located in Course Resources.
2. For each question identify the correct answer.
3. Submit the worksheet to the DropBox by 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 3
Epidemiological Formulas and Statistics
Parameter Definition Formula
Incidence
(exposed) Incidence of new cases of disease in persons who were exposed number (exposed with disease)/Total number of exposed
Incidence
(unexposed)Incidence of new cases of disease in persons who were not exposed number (unexposed with disease)/Total number of
unexposed
Incidence of
Disease
Measure of risk. Total number in a population with a disease divided by the total number of the
population. Number with the disease/ Total population number
Relative
Risk
Risk of disease in one group versus another. Risk of developing a disease after exposure. If this
number is one, it means there is no risk. R(exposed)/Risk (unexposed)
(# exposed with disease(divided by)/total of all exposed)
(# of non-exposed with disease/(divided by)total of all non
exposed)
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Odds Ratio A measure of exposure and disease outcome commonly used in case control studies.
R(exposed)/R (unexposed)
1- R(exposed) 1-R(unexposed)
Prevalence The number of cases of a disease in a given time regardless of when it began. (new and old
cases) (Persons with the disease/ Total population) X 1000
Attributable
Risk
The difference in diseasein those exposed and unexposed and is calculated from prospective
data. Directly attributed to exposure (if exposure gone, disease would be gone) R(exposed) – R(unexposed)
Crude Birth
Rate The number of live births per 1,000 people in the population (# of births/estimated mid-year population) X 1000
Crude Death
Rate The number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population (# of deaths/estimated mid-year population) X 1000
Fetal Death
Rate The number of fetal deaths (20 weeks or more gestation) per 1,000 live births. (# of fetal deaths/ # of live births + fetal deaths) X 1000
Annual
Mortality
Rate
Usually an expression of a specific disease or can be all causes per 1,000 people for a year.
(# of deaths of all causes (or a specific disease)/Mid-year
population) X 1000
Case
Fatality Rate
The parentage of individuals who have a specific disease and die within a specific time after
diagnosis.
(# of persons dying from a disease after diagnosis or set
period/ # of persons with the disease) X 100
Relative Risk Calculation Worksheet
Prior to completing this worksheet, review the lessons, reading and course text up to this point. Also review the tables of calculations. Each question is worth five (5)
points. There is only one right answer for each of the ten problems.
1. The population in the city of Springfield, Missouri in March, 2014 was 200,000.
The number of new cases of HIV was 28 between January 1 and June 30th 2014.
The number of current HIV cases was 130 between January 1 and June 30th 2014.
The incidence rate of HIV cases for this 6 month period was:
A. 7 per 100,000 population
B. 14 per 100,000 population
C. 28 per 100,000 population
D. 85 per 100,000 population
2. The prevalence rate of HIV cases in Springfield, Missouri as of June 30, 2014 was:
A. 14 per 100,000 population
B. 28 per 100,000 population
C. 79 per 100,000 population
D. 130 per 100,000 population
3. In a North African country with a population of 5 million people, 50,000 deaths occurred during 2014. These deaths included 5,000 people from malaria out of 10,000
persons who had Malaria.
What was the total Annual Mortality Rate for 2014 for this country? (please show your work)
4. What was the cause-specific mortality rate from malaria? (please show your work)
5. What was the case-fatality percent from malaria?
6. Fill in and total the 4 X 4 table for the following disease parameters:
Total number of people with lung cancer in a given population = 120
Total number of people with lung cancer who smoked = 90
Total number of people with lung cancer who did not smoke = 30
Total number of people who smoked = 150
Total number of people in the population = 350
Fill in the missing parameters based on the above.
YES LUNG CANCERNO LUNG CANCERTOTALS
YES SMOKING
NO SMOKING
TOTALS
7. From Question 6, what is the total number of people with no lung cancer?
8. From question 6, what is the total number of people who smoked, but did not have lung cancer?
9. Set up the problem for relative risk based on the table in #6.
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10. Calculate the relative risk.
NR503 Week 6 Evaluation of Epidemiological Problem Paper
Evaluation of Epidemiological Problem
Guidelines& Grading Rubric
Purpose
The purpose of this assignment is to
Provide learners with the opportunity to integrate knowledge and skills learned throughout this course
Directly apply principles and knowledge learned in the course to problem solving of population health problems in their own geographic areas.
Course Outcomes
This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:
1. Define key terms in epidemiology, community health, and population-based research.
2. Compare study designs used for obtaining population health information from surveillance, observation, community, and control trial based research.
3. Identify appropriate outcome measures and study designs applicable to epidemiological subfields such as infectious disease, chronic disease, environmental
exposures, reproductive health, and genetics.
4. Apply commonly used measures of health risk.
5. Examine current ethical/legal issues in epidemiology.
6. Identify important sources of epidemiological data.
7. Evaluate a public health problem in terms of magnitude, person, time, and place.
Due Date
Submit to Dropbox by 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 6
Total Points Possible: 200
Requirements
This paper should clearly and comprehensively identify the disease or population health problem chosen. The problem must be an issue in your geographic area and a
concern for the population you will serve upon graduation with your degree. The paper should be organized into the following sections:
1. Introduction with a clear presentation of the problem as well as significance and a scholarly overview of the paper.
2. Background of the disease including definition, description, signs and symptoms, and current incidence and/or prevalence statistics current state, local, and national
statistics pertaining to the disease. (Include a table of incidence or prevalence rates by your geographic county, state, and national statistics.)
3. A review of current surveillance methods and any mandated reporting or methods for reporting the disease for providers.
4. Conduct descriptive epidemiology analysis of the disease including who is more frequently affected and characteristics of the population that might help in creating a
prevention plan. Include costs (both financial and social) associated with the disease or problem.
5. Review how the disease is diagnosed, current national standards for screening or prevention, and pick one screening test and review its sensitivity, specificity, positive
predictive value, cost and any current national guidelines for conducting which patients to conduct this test on.
6. Provide a brief plan of how you will address this epidemiological disease in your practice once you are finished with school. Provide three actions you will take along
with how you will measure outcomes of your actions.
7. Conclude in a clear manner with a brief overview of key points of the entire disease,
Preparing the Paper
· Page length: 7-10 pages, excluding title/cover page
· APA format 6thedition
· Include references when necessary.
· Include at least one table to present information somewhere in the paper

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