The tools that we use to collect data need to be reliable and valid. Researchers measure variables and collect data on samples that represent populations of interest; levels of measurement and reliability and validity of instruments. Instruments can be physical such as a thermometer, or psychometric such as surveys/scales on paper (or online). Data collection can also be through interviews or observations. If you are looking at secondary data, you might use medical records, census data, or public health records.
Define these terms (variable, data collection samples, levels of measurement, reliability of instruments, validity of instruments) with respect to research and explain why they are important.
Consider data collection and measure methods as you read the following online PDF or after you download it. (WRITER I HAVE PROVIDE YOU THE PDF ATTACHMENT)
American Nurses Association. (2014). Fast facts: The nursing workforce 2014: Growth, salaries, education, demographics & trends. Retrieved from
Review these facts and describe what the results say about this sample of the nursing workforce. What do you believe was the intent of the researcher who designed the survey?