Bob was out in the woods cutting down trees for firewood. As a tree was falling, it twisted around and a lower limb hit Bob in the head. Immediately, he was bleeding profusely. Being alone, he had no choice but to make it back to his house in order to get help. He applied pressure to the wound but he was unable to completely stop the flow of blood. It was 90 minutes before he was able to make it to a hospital and by then he was pale, cold and light-headed but the bleeding had stopped. Upon admission his blood pressure and heart rate were 90/60 mmHg and 105 bpm, respectively, when lying down. When upright, his blood pressure and heart rate were 75/45 mmHg and 135 bpm, respectively. As an immediate treatment, i.v. saline was administered.
1. During early hypovolemic shock, is it more beneficial for the body to regulate blood volume, blood pressure, or cardiac output?
2. Immediately following a significant blood loss, describe what changes may occur within the cardiovascular system. Include changes occurring both at the level of the heart and the vasculature.
3. Following a significant loss of blood volume, what happens at the level of the capillaries with respect to absorption and filtration?