How to Write a Synthesis Paragraph

How do you write a synthesis essay? Writing a synthesis essay involves combining ideas from different sources to create a new, cohesive argument. Start by picking a topic that has many different ideas or opinions about it. Then, read various articles or books, gathering different points of view. Your job is to blend these ideas to show how they connect and your thoughts. You present your unique viewpoint, making sure to explain how all these different ideas come together to support your point of view. 

By the end of this article, you’ll be equipped with the knowledge and skills needed to craft a compelling and insightful synthesis essay.

What Is a Synthesis Essay?

A synthesis essay is a type of writing assignment that asks you to draw information from multiple sources to discuss a topic or argument. Unlike a summary, which just presents the information, a synthesis essay combines ideas from different sources to present a new perspective or support a point of view. 

High school and college students frequently write synthesis essays, which usually adhere to the five-paragraph essay format. The questions or thesis statements that shape these essays might stem from the writer’s viewpoint. However, they aim to explain their argument with objective evidence and external data, moving beyond mere opinion to build a well-supported case.

Synthesis Essay Types

There are several types of synthesis essays, each serving a unique purpose in presenting information and arguments. The primary types include:

  • Argument Synthesis Essay:In this type of essay, you might explore and compare two different issues, advocate for a specific viewpoint, or examine cause-and-effect relationships. The key here is using readings from various sources to construct and support your thesis, blending these different insights to strengthen your argument.
  • Review Essay: These essays are more about exploring and learning the intricacies of a particular subject. They focus less on comparing and more on summarizing and paraphrasing information from various sources. The aim is to unravel and present detailed insights about the topic, providing a clear and comprehensive understanding.
  • Explanatory Synthesis Essay: This type involves reading multiple books or literary works and identifying common themes or elements among them. It’s not just about reviewing books; it’s an analytical process where you look for patterns, draw connections, and perhaps propose new interpretations or ideas based on these literary comparisons.

Explanatory vs. Argumentative Synthesis Essays: How Are They Different?

Explanatory and Argumentative Synthesis Essays differ mainly in their purpose and approach to presenting information:

Explanatory Synthesis Essays aim to inform and explain. They gather information from multiple sources and present it effectively. The goal is to educate the reader about a topic without necessarily taking a stance or persuading them. These essays focus on summarizing and clarifying different viewpoints or aspects of a topic, helping the reader understand it better.

Argumentative Synthesis Essays, on the other hand, are persuasive. They also use information from various sources, but the main goal is to present and support a specific argument or viewpoint. In these essays, the writer takes a clear stance on an issue and uses evidence from the sources to convince the reader of their position. The emphasis is on building a strong, logical argument rather than just presenting information.

Synthesis Essay Structure

The structure of a synthesis essay is key to effectively combining and presenting information from various sources. Here’s a breakdown of the main parts of the essay:

Introductory Paragraph

Here, you start by grabbing the reader’s attention with a compelling opening. This could be a thought-provoking question, a striking fact, or an interesting anecdote. The introduction then gently guides the reader into the topic, providing necessary background information or context. It concludes with a clear thesis statement that sets the direction for the essay.

Body Paragraphs

These form the core of your essay, where each paragraph discusses a separate point or idea related to your thesis. You incorporate information from your sources, presenting it in a way that supports your argument. It’s not just about listing facts; it’s about analyzing and interpreting them to build your case.


Within the body paragraphs, you synthesize the information from your sources. This means you don’t just report what others have said; you blend different perspectives, compare and contrast ideas, and draw connections between them, all while relating to your thesis.


The essay wraps up in the conclusion, where you revisit your main points and thesis. It’s your last chance to emphasize the significance of your argument and leave a lasting impression on the reader. The conclusion might also explore broader implications or suggest areas for further research.


Finally, you include a list of all the sources you cited in your essay. This is crucial for acknowledging the original authors and avoiding plagiarism. The references should follow a specific citation format, like APA, MLA, or Chicago, depending on the requirements of your assignment or field of study.

How to Start a Synthesis Essay

Starting a synthesis essay involves several thoughtful steps to set a strong foundation for your writing:

Choose a Synthesis Essay Topic: Select a subject that is broad enough to find various sources yet specific enough to be manageable. Look for topics that interest you and have multiple perspectives.

Analyze Your Topic:Understand the different angles and issues surrounding your topic. This involves preliminary research to grasp the various viewpoints and the key debates.

Develop a Thesis Statement: Your thesis is the central idea of your essay. It should reflect your position or the main point you intend to make. A good thesis is debatable and directs the focus of your essay.

Gather, Read, and Evaluate Sources: Collect information from various sources, including books, journal articles, interviews, and credible websites. Aim for sources that provide different viewpoints on your topic. Carefully read your sources to understand their main points. Take notes, highlighting key arguments, evidence, and how they relate to your thesis.

Create an Outline for Your Essay: Plan the structure of your essay. Decide how you will organize your points and evidence, keeping in mind the need to synthesize information from your sources throughout your essay.

How to Write a Synthesis Essay

Writing a synthesis essay involves combining insights from various sources to present a comprehensive perspective on a topic. Here’s a simplified approach to writing such an essay:

Use Your Outline to Write the First Draft

When writing the first draft of your synthesis essay, begin with a clear articulation of your thesis statement. This thesis is the guiding force of your entire essay, acting as a compass for your arguments and insights. Refer to the outline you’ve prepared, which serves as a strategic roadmap for your composition. 

As you progress through each paragraph, continually align your content with your main argument. This alignment ensures that every part of your essay contributes meaningfully to the main idea, creating a narrative from the various sources and perspectives you are synthesizing.

Use Transitions 

Transition words and phrases act like bridges, connecting ideas within and between paragraphs. They guide the reader through your essay, helping them follow the development of your argument and see the relationships between ideas. 

Incorporating transitions in your topic sentence makes your essay more coherent and easier to read, as it clearly shows how each point and paragraph contributes to your overall thesis. This attention to flow and connection is key to writing an effective and persuasive synthesis essay.

Wrap Up Your Essay 

To effectively conclude your synthesis essay, it’s important to bring your arguments full circle. In the final section, briefly summarize the main points you have discussed. This helps reinforce the argument you’ve built throughout the essay. Restating your thesis in this context reminds the reader of your essay’s central idea and its significance. 

The conclusion is also your opportunity to leave a lasting impression, offering final insights or considering the broader implications of your argument. This part of your essay solidifies your points and gives the reader a sense of closure on the topic.

Revise and Proofread Your Essay

Ensure your arguments are well-supported by your sources. Examine the structure of your essay to make sure it flows logically and that each section effectively contributes to your thesis. Also, assess how effectively you have synthesized your sources, ensuring you blended them smoothly to support your argument.

Proofreading ensures that your essay appears polished and professional. Attention to these details can greatly enhance the readability and credibility of your work, making a positive impression on your readers. Remember, even small mistakes can distract from the strength of your arguments, so take the time to review your essay thoroughly before considering it complete.

Cite Sources

Citing sources helps you avoid plagiarism, which is the unethical act of using someone else’s work without giving them credit. Additionally, it adds credibility to your arguments, showing that they are backed by research and established knowledge. Proper citation allows readers to verify your sources and further explore the topic if they wish.

Remember to follow the specific citation style (like APA, MLA, or Chicago) as instructed by your teacher or as standard in your field of study. This attention to detail in citing sources is a key aspect of writing a responsible and trustworthy synthesis essay.

Title Your Essay

Choosing the right title for your essay is an important step in the writing process. Your title should be fitting and reflective of the content and perspective of your argument. A well-crafted title can engage your reader, sparking their interest in what your essay has to offer. It gives a glimpse into the theme or the stance you’re taking in your essay, setting the tone for what follows. 

Synthesis Essay Format

The format of your synthesis essay will depend on the specific style guide that your instructor asks you to follow. Commonly used formatting styles include MLA, APA, and Chicago, each suiting different academic fields. Each style has its own set of rules for formatting, citations, and references, shaping the structure of your synthesis paper accordingly.

APA Style Format

  • Requires a title page with a running head.
  • Citations include the author’s last name and the year of publication.
  • The reference list at the end of the document contains all the sources cited.
  • Standard font, like 12 pt Times New Roman.
  • Double-spaced text with 1-inch margins on all sides.

Chicago Style Format

  • Offers two systems: Notes-Bibliography (used in literature, history, and the arts) and Author-Date (used in physical, natural, and social sciences).
  • Notes-Bibliography uses footnotes or endnotes along with a bibliography.
  • Author-Date uses in-text parenthetical citations and a reference list.
  • Typically formatted with 12 pt Times New Roman, double-spaced.

MLA Style Format

  • It does not require a title page; instead, it includes a header on the first page with the author’s name, instructor’s name, course number, and date.
  • Use parenthetical citations with the author’s last name and page number.
  • A “Works Cited” page at the end of the document for all sources referenced.
  • Standard format includes 12 pt Times New Roman font, double spacing, and 1-inch margins.

Tips for Writing a Synthesis Essay 

When writing your essay, certain tips can help enhance the quality and effectiveness of your work:

  • Use Multiple Reasons: When presenting an argument, avoid relying on a single source or reason. Instead, draw upon multiple sources to support your points. This demonstrates a well-rounded understanding of the topic.
  • Strawman: Avoid misrepresenting opposing viewpoints or creating a “strawman” argument. Address counterarguments accurately and respectfully to strengthen your position.
  • Summarize: Provide concise summaries of the main points from your sources. This helps readers understand the context and relevance of each source to your argument.
  • Compare and Contrast: Highlight similarities and differences between sources or ideas. This shows your ability to synthesize information and can lead to deeper insights.
  • Examples: Incorporate specific examples from your academic writing sources to illustrate key points. Concrete examples make your argument more convincing and relatable.
  • Concession: Acknowledge valid points from opposing perspectives. Demonstrating an understanding of differing viewpoints adds credibility to your argument.

Synthesis Essay Example

Title: The Role of Nursing Education in Patient Care


The quality of patient care is directly linked to the education and training of nurses. This synthesis essay examines various perspectives on the impact of nursing education on patient care, drawing insights from a range of scholarly sources.


I. Theoretical Foundation of Nursing Education

Source 1: A nursing theory perspective (Author X, Year) argues that nursing education must be grounded in sound theoretical frameworks to ensure nurses have a strong foundation for clinical practice.

Source 2: In contrast, Source Y (Year) emphasizes the practical aspects of nursing education, suggesting that hands-on experience should be prioritized to improve patient care skills.

II. The Role of Evidence-Based Practice

Source 3:Evidence-based practice (Author Z, Year) is highlighted as a critical component of nursing education, enabling nurses to apply the latest research findings to patient care.

Source 4: Source W (Year) argues that the gap between research and practice remains challenging in nursing, emphasizing the need for improved integration of evidence-based principles in education.

III. Nursing Education and Patient Safety

Source 5: Patient safety is a paramount concern in nursing education, as discussed by Author M (Year). Education should focus on error prevention and ethical decision-making.

Source 6: Author N (Year) presents an opposing view, suggesting that excessive emphasis on patient safety during education may hinder nurses' ability to make quick and critical decisions in high-pressure situations.

IV. Cultural Competence in Nursing

Source 7: Cultural competence is explored in nursing education by Author P (Year) as a means to provide patient-centered care. Cultural sensitivity training should be integrated into nursing curricula.

Source 8: Source Q (Year) argues that the focus on cultural competence can divert attention from other critical nursing skills and challenges the practicality of this approach.


This synthesis of perspectives reveals the complexities surrounding nursing education's influence on patient care. Theoretical foundations, evidence-based practice, patient safety, and cultural competence all contribute to the education of competent nurses. However, striking a balance between these aspects remains a challenge. Nursing education must evolve to address these issues effectively, ultimately improving patient care outcomes.

Conclusion on Writing a Synthesis Paragraph

Writing a good synthesis essay involves combining diverse sources and perspectives to create a persuasive argument. It involves careful analysis, critical thinking, and adding contrasting ideas into a composition. This helps you engage in scholarly dialogue and construct meaningful essays. Refine your skills, and let your synthesis essays reflect your ability to create clarity, meaning, and engagement from several ideas.