**Identify appropriate outcome measures and study designs applicable to epidemiological subfields such as infectious disease, chronic disease, environmental**

**exposures, reproductive health, and genetics.**

The purpose of this assignment is to help you to begin to understand and apply the important counts, ratios, and statistics presented in healthcare and epidemiological

research. Remember to use the list of formulas presented prior to the problems and to carefully consider the purpose of each calculation and how it is interpreted.

Course Outcomes

Through this assignment, the student will demonstrate the ability to:

(CO #3) Identify appropriate outcome measures and study designs applicable to epidemiological subfields such as infectious disease, chronic disease, environmental

exposures, reproductive health, and genetics.

(CO #4) Apply commonly used measures of health risk.

(CO #6) Identify important sources of epidemiological data.

Due Date:Sunday 11:59 p.m. (MT) at the end of Week 3

Total Points Possible:50

Requirements:

1. Complete the Risk Calculation Worksheet located in DocSharing.

2. For each question identify the correct answer.

3. Submit the worksheet to the DropBox by 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 3

Epidemiological Formulas and Statistics

Parameter Definition Formula

Incidence

(exposed) Incidence of new cases of disease in persons who were exposed number (exposed with disease)/Total number of exposed

Incidence

(unexposed)Incidence of new cases of disease in persons who were not exposed number (unexposed with disease)/Total number of

unexposed

Incidence of

Disease

Measure of risk. Total number in a population with a disease divided by the total number of the

population. Number with the disease/ Total population number

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NR503_W3 – Identify appropriate outcome measures and study designs applicable to epidemiological

subfields

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Dated: 17th Sep’15 03:37 AM

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Relative

Risk

Risk of disease in one group versus another. Risk of developing a disease after exposure. If this

number is one, it means there is no risk. R(exposed)/Risk (unexposed)

(# exposed with disease(divided by)/total of all exposed)

(# of non-exposed with disease/(divided by)total of all

non exposed)

Odds Ratio A measure of exposure and disease outcome commonly used in case control studies.

R(exposed)/ R (unexposed)

1- R(exposed) 1-R(unexposed)

Prevalence The number of cases of a disease in a given time regardless of when it began. (new and old

cases) (Persons with the disease/ Total population) X 1000

Attributable

Risk

The difference in disease in those exposed and unexposed and is calculated from prospective

data. Directly attributed to exposure (if exposure gone, disease would be gone) R(exposed) – R(unexposed)

Crude Birth

Rate The number of live births per 1,000 people in the population (# of births/estimated mid-year population) X 1000

Crude Death

Rate The number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population (# of deaths/estimated mid-year population) X 1000

Fetal Death

Rate The number of fetal deaths (20 weeks or more gestation) per 1,000 live births. (# of fetal deaths/ # of live births + fetal deaths) X 1000

Annual

Mortality

Rate

Usually an expression of a specific disease or can be all causes per 1,000 people for a year.

(# of deaths of all causes (or a specific disease)/Midyear

population) X 1000

Case

Fatality Rate

The parentage of individuals who have a specific disease and die within a specific time after

diagnosis.

(# of persons dying from a disease after diagnosis or set

period/ # of persons with the disease) X 100

Relative Risk Calculation Worksheet Answer Key

Prior to completing this worksheet, review the lessons, reading and course text up to this point. Also review the tables of calculations. Each question is worth five (5)

points. There is only one right answer for each of the ten problems.

1. The population in the city of Springfield, Missouri in March, 2014 was 200,000.

The number of new cases of HIV was 28 between January 1 and June 30 2014.

The number of current HIV cases was 130 between January 1 and June 30 2014.

The incidence rate of HIV cases for this 6 month period was:

A. 7 per 100,000 population

B. 14 per 100,000 population

C. 28 per 100,000 population

D. 85 per 100,000 population

2. The prevalence rate of HIV cases in Springfield, Missouri as of June 30, 2014 was:

A. 14 per 100,000 population

B. 28 per 100,000 population

C. 79 per 100,000 population

D. 130 per 100,000 population

3. In a North African country with a population of 5 million people, 50,000 deaths occurred during 2014. These deaths included 5,000 people from malaria out of 10,000

persons who had Malaria.

What was the total Annual Mortality Rate for 2014 for this country? (please show your work)

4. What was the cause-specific mortality rate from malaria? (please show your work)

5. What was the case-fatality percent from malaria?

6. Fill in and total the 4 X 4 table for the following disease parameters:

Total number of people with lung cancer in a given population = 120

Total number of people with lung cancer who smoked = 90

Total number of people with lung cancer who did not smoke = 30

Total number of people who smoked = 150

Total number of people in the population = 350

Fill in the missing parameters based on the above.

YES LUNG CANCER NO LUNG CANCER TOTALS

YES SMOKING

NO SMOKING

TOTALS

th

th

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7. From Question 6, what is the total number of people with no lung cancer?

8. From question 6, what is the total number of people who smoked, but did not have lung cancer?

9. Set up the problem for relative risk based on the table in #6.

10. Calculate the relative risk.