Running Head: LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction Comment by Author: Remember, you do not need to say Introduction, just start the first paragraph AS the introduction as it is understood to be just that.
The PICOT’s objective was to discover whether nurses who possessed skills and knowledge in breastfeeding could encourage and effectively increase the practice of breastfeeding among post-partum women relative to those nurses without knowledge and skills in breastfeeding. This literature review builds on this object; it looks at current research and studies conducted that try to pursue similar aims. Specifically, the literature review endeavors to determine the known and the unknown relative to the PICOT. The work will make a comparison of research questions from a multitude of sources versus those outlined in the PICOT. Further, the work will compare the sample population used in researches done in other works. Limitations that occurred in other studies relative to those in the PICOT will be underlined. Comment by Author: Incorrect punctuation. Use a comma after the word object and join the two clauses with the conjunction and. Comment by Author: This should be from a multitude of sources Comment by Author: Where are literature sources outlined in your PICOT question? Comment by Author: There are no underlined sources in this paper, I think you need a different word here.
Comparison of Research Questions Comment by Author: Heading should be in bold Comment by Author: You were supposed to compare the research questions of the articles, not the research questions of the article to your PICOT.
The research question in the PICOT was ‘In mothers who choose to breastfeed, will education by nurses who possess knowledge within the practice, compared to nurses without this knowledge increase the practice of breastfeeding at the time of patient discharge?’. The above research question compares to Azevedo et al.’s (2015) whose research objective was to assess the knowledge possessed by nursing professionals regarding clinical management of breastfeeding to ascertain the advantages of breastfeeding on the health of women and children. In a study by Vijayalakshmi, Susheela, & Mythili (2015), the aim of the research was to study the attitude and knowledge towards infant feeding and breastfeeding practices among Indian mothers. Similar to Vijayalakshmi, Susheela, & Mythili (2015), Jiang (2012) explored the guidelines and information of breastfeeding in China by WHO. Kozhimannil et al. (2014) measured the relationship between a complex pregnancy, early infant breastfeeding, and the available hospital support and intentions. Rosangela et al.’s (2015) objective were to determine the approaches used by nursing professionals concerning the clinical administration of breastfeeding and further conduct analysis on the tactics used by nurses in carrying out breastfeeding clinical management. Like Rosangela et al. (2015), Martin et al.’s (2016) study strived to appraise the dietary knowledge and facts about infant formula and breast milk from birth to the age of 12 months during which substitute of nutrients was necessary. Motel et al.’s (2013) research was carried out in Mauritius where the authors’ objective was to underline enough evidence to recommend exclusive breastfeeding of infants continuously for 6 months. In the study by Fonseca-Machado et al. (2013), the objective was to underline the breastfeeding-related performance of professionals in nursing from a perspective of wellness promotion.
Comparison of Sample Populations Comment by Author: Heading should be in bold
Azevedo et al. (2015) utilized a sample population of 59, which was almost half those enrolled by Vijayalakshmi, Susheela, and Mythili (2015). In Vijayalakshmi, Susheela, & Mythili (2015), 138 mothers were enrolled in the study of which only 122 were included in the final study population. In the study by Jiang (2012), a total of 653 women at between 5 and 22 gestational weeks were recruited into the sample population. The sample population in Kozhimannil et al.’s (2014) study, comprised 2400 women who gave birth at an American hospital. Rosangela et al.’s (2015) sample population was 107 nurses working at an obstetric center in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Motee et al. (2013) utilized a sample population comprised of 500 mothers aged between 18 and 45 years.
Comparison of the Limitations of the Studies Comment by Author: Heading should be in bold
In the study by Azevedo et al. (2015), the absence of audiovisual materials in health care units presented a limitation in the study as these facilitate counseling of breastfeeding mothers. In Vijayalakshmi, Susheela, & Mythili’s (2015) study, the main limitation arose from the fact that all participants were at six months postpartum. The sample size was also tiny making it difficult to generalize the findings. The study by Jiang (2012) also had its limitations. Firstly, since the design of the study was cross-sectional, no fundamental relationships could be determined assertively relative to the conclusions in the study. Secondly, the study consisted of a population sample of highly educated mothers. As such, the study had a selection bias which limited its generalization. Additionally, the study did not analyze whether the awareness of breastfeeding could be converted to future breastfeeding.
Conclusion Comment by Author: Heading should be in bold
Current literature indicates that breastfeeding does indeed offer several advantages to both the mother and the infant. On average, studies reviewed suggested that about 80% of the infants were breastfed exclusively for the first six months of their lives. Studies reviewed additionally indicate that after the first six months of exclusive breastfeeding, most mothers tended to wean their babies. Effectively, the literature reviewed denoted that the level of breastfeeding was fairly high. Nevertheless, in some countries, there was a low awareness on how to breastfeed effectively especially among first-time mothers. An emphasis on the health advantages of breastfeeding and which comply with those espoused by WHO should thus be encouraged if higher levels of breastfeeding prevalence are to be achieved. Further, specific apprehensions regarding difficulties mothers encounter during breastfeeding must be addressed. Difficulties such as discrimination against breastfeeding in public, and no designated breastfeeding areas. There is also a need to review the national course of action on maternal leave. Further, places of work must be redesigned such that they are conducive for breastfeeding. Comment by Author: Sentence is fragmented and incomplete Comment by Author: This should be a need
Azevedo, Ana Regina Ramos, Alves, Valdecyr Herdy, Souza, Rosangela de Mattos Pereira de, Rodrigues, Diego Pereira, Branco, Maria Bertilla Lutterbach Riker, & Cruz, Amanda Fernandes do Nascimento da. (2015). Clinical management of breastfeeding: knowledge of nurses. Escola Anna Nery, 19(3), 439-445.
Fonseca-Machado, M. D., Monteiro, J. C., Viduedo, A. D., Haas, V. J., Alves, L. C., & Gomes-Sponholz, F. (2013). The paradox of nursing practice on breastfeeding promotion: what they say and what they do. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(11). doi:10.5430/jnep.v3n11p141
Jiang, H., Li, M., Yang, D., Wen, M., Hunter, C., He, G. & Qian, X. (2012). Awareness, Intention, and Needs Regarding Breastfeeding: Findings from First-Time Mothers in Shanghai, China. Breastfeed Med, 7(6), 526–534. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0124 Comment by Author: Capitalization formatting error
Kozhimannil, K.B., Jou, J., Attanasio L.B., Joarnt, L.K. & McGovern, P. (2014) Medically complex pregnancies and early breastfeeding behaviors: A retrospective analysis. PLoS ONE.9:279. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104820.[Cross Ref]
Martin, C.R., Ling, P. & Blackburn, G.L. (2016). Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula. Nutrients. 8(5): 279. doi:10.3390/nu8050279 Comment by Author: Capitalization formatting error
Motee, A., Ramasawmy, D., Pugo-Gunsam, P. & Jeewon, R. (2013). An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius. J Nutr Metab. 243852. doi: 10.1155/2013/243852 Comment by Author: Capitalization formatting error
Rosangela De Mattos Pereira De Souza, Alves, V. H., Rodrigues, D. P., Branco, M. B., Lopes, F. D., & Maria Teresa Rosa De Souza Barbosa. (2015). Nursing strategies in the clinical management of breastfeeding: a descriptive and exploratory study. Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing, 14(1). doi:10.5935/1676-4285.20154612
Vijayalakshmi, P., Susheela, T. & Mythili, D. (2015). Knowledge, attitudes, and breastfeeding practices of postnatal mothers: A cross-sectional survey. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 9(4): 364–374.