1. A client has a bone density score of –2.8. What action by the nurse is best? a. Asking the client to complete a food diary b. Planning to teach about bisphosphonates c. Scheduling another scan in 2 years d. Scheduling another scan in 6 months ANS: B A T-score from a bone density scan at or lower than –2.5 indicates osteoporosis. The nurse should plan to teach about medications used to treat this disease. One class of such medications is bisphosphonates. A food diary is helpful to determine if the client gets adequate calcium and vitamin D, but at this point, dietary changes will not prevent the disease. Simply scheduling another scan will not help treat the disease either. DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1030 KEY: Musculoskeletal disorders| patient education| bisphosphonates MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential
2. A nurse is assessing an older client and discovers back pain with tenderness along with T2 and T3. What action by the nurse is best? a. Consult with the provider about an x-ray. b. Encourage the client to use ibuprofen (Motrin). c. Have the client perform a hip range of motion. d. Place the client in a rigid cervical collar. ANS: Back pain with tenderness is indicative of a spinal compression fracture, which is the most common type of osteoporotic fracture. The nurse should consult the provider about an x-ray. Motrin may be indicated but not until there is a diagnosis. The range of motion of the hips is not related, although the limited spinal range of motion may be found with a vertebral compression fracture. Since the defect is in the thoracic spine, a cervical collar is not needed. DIF: Applying/Application REF: 1032 KEY: Musculoskeletal assessment| osteoporosis| older adult| pain MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential
3. A client has been advised to perform weight-bearing exercises to help minimize osteoporosis. The client admits to not doing the prescribed exercises. What action by the nurse is best? a. Ask the client about the fear of falling. b. Instruct the client to increase calcium. c. Suggest other exercises the client can do. d. Tell the client to try weight lifting. ANS: A Fear of falling can limit participation inactivity. The nurse should first assess if the client has this fear and then offer suggestions for dealing with it. The client may or may not need extra calcium, other exercises, or weight lifting.