Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values
The Christian concept of imago Dei is that “God created human beings to have a likeness to his character, not a likeness to his literal physical appearance” which helps “provide the basis for human dignity and worth” (White, 2020). Imago Dei also implies that “human being are more than simply bodies” (White, 2020). This concept emphasizes the importance of individuals being both physical and spiritual individuals.
This concept is important to health care because it focuses on the need to treat patient’s holistically. They need to be treated physically (of course), spiritually, emotionally and mentally throughout their health care experience. This concept is a constant reminder to treat individually holistically because they are much more than just their physical illness.
Imago Dei is relevant in healthcare because there are times that nurses and other health care staff can forget to treat patients holistically. It is easy to get busy with doing what we have to do to keep our patient alive, well and on the road to recovery that we forget that they need more that physical help.
I have seen nurses in my experience completely forget about all aspects besides physical care and yes of course they were still well taken care “medically” not all their needs were met during their hospitalization because of failure to provide holistic care. There is many factors that go into caring for individuals completely and giving them the best care and support during their health care experience.
Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values Reference
White, N. (2020). Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in health care. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/home
Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values Instructions
Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
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Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics Example Solutions
Foundational issues in Christian spirituality and ethics are essential to understanding one’s worldview. The purpose of this assignment is to explore my worldview as a Christian by elaborating my understanding of ultimate reality, nature of the universe, human being, knowledge, basis of ethics, and purpose of existence.
What is ultimate reality?
According to Bogue and Hogan (2020), ultimate reality refers to the highest authority. In my Christian view, the ultimate reality is God. He is Supreme, Almighty, and creator of heaven and earth and all things visible and invisible. God is the unique source of all reality. He is supernatural. God is described as omnipresent, omniscient, eternal, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). Consequently, we Christians believe that God, who exists as the trinity, created the world and was pleased with His creation. Additionally, God is the source of morality. For instance, He commanded man, “You may surely eat of every tree of the garden, but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die” (Genesis 2:16-17). God also demonstrates His supremacy through various miracles and powerful signs that are well documented in both the old and the new testaments of the Bible.
What is the nature of the universe?
As a Christian, the universe was created by God, who rules over it. It is composed of both physical and spiritual worlds. Human beings have been given power over the physical world to be fruitful and multiply and explore the resources within the physical world. However, the spiritual world involves an interaction of the spirit of God and the spirits of human souls. As a result, human beings can communicate to God spiritually through prayer. The existence of the spiritual world is demonstrated by Christ himself when he teaches his disciples to pray, and He is also seen interceding on behalf of us.
What is a human being?
As Christian, human beings are part of God’s creation and were made on the last day of creation. They are superior to other creatures, for they were made in the image and likeness of God (Genesis 1:27). Similarly, as human beings, we are blessed by the Almighty. But unlike God, human beings have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God (Roman 3:23). The sinful nature of human beings is also depicted during the call of Moses when God orders him to remove his shoes, for he was standing on holy ground. However, God forgives us whenever we repent. Given the valuable nature of human beings as the image of God, human life must be respected and protected at all costs (Baumeister & Bushman, 2020). Likewise, human beings must be treated with dignity and love. Finally, God values his creation. For instance, God became a human being in the person of Jesus Christ.
What is knowledge?
Knowledge is the sum of what is known. As Christians, knowledge is a gift from God. God (1 Corinthians 12:8). Additionally, Christians regard scientific knowledge as a consequence of the utilization of power that was given to them by God. Therefore, human beings must utilize knowledge as a service to humanity (Cuellar De la Cruz & Robinson, 2017). The Bible remains the main source of Christian knowledge. Christians also acknowledge the limited nature of human knowledge and its hindrance by sin. Finally, Christians can pray to God to obtain knowledge through faith since knowledge is directly connected to God’s revelatory acts.
What is your basis of ethics?
Ethics refers to moral principles that govern an individual’s behavior. It encompasses systematizing, defending, and recommending the concepts of right and wrong behavior (Stanley et al., 2018). From a Christian point of view, God is the basis of morality. This is evidenced by the mentioning of the tree of knowledge of good and evil in the creation stories. Following the fall of mankind, human beings became aware of good and evil with an obligation to do good as evil doings are punishable. Subsequently, Christian ethics involves living a life pleasing to God that is guided by Christian scriptures and traditions. For instance, God issues commandments to the Israelites through Moses, which were to be followed, and these are later summarized into the two greatest commandments by Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Consequently, Christians rely on the Bible, a book penned down by human beings supernaturally inspired by God, as the most authoritative source of Christian morals and ethics.
What is the purpose of your existence?
The sole purpose of existence for Christians is to worship God and enjoy a relationship with Him forever. Christians exist to Love God and their fellow human beings, after which they will be rewarded with eternal life. Similarly, Christ encourages Christians to follow him and serve God through doing good deeds to the needy. Christ also redefines the purpose of life. For instance, He fights evil throughout His life, He is sentenced to death, resurrects and finally ascends into heaven, and finally promises to come back to judge the living and the dead. Consequently, Christians spend their life preparing for the second coming of Jesus Christ through service to God.
Foundational issues in Christian spirituality and ethics are core to understanding one’s worldview. For Christians, God is the ultimate reality, and they live to serve Him. Human beings are special and have dominion over other creatures.
Baumeister, R. F., & Bushman, B. J. (2020). Social Psychology and Human Nature
. Cengage Learning.
Bogue, D. W., & Hogan, M. (2020). Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision-making in health care. In Grand Canyon University
Cuellar De la Cruz, Y., & Robinson, S. (2017). Answering the call to accessible quality health care for all using a new model of local community not-for-profit charity clinics: A return to Christ-centered care of the past. The Linacre Quarterly
(1), 44–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/00243639.2016.1274631
Stanley, S., Purser, R. E., & Singh, N. N. (2018). Ethical foundations of mindfulness. In Mindfulness in Behavioral Health
(pp. 1–29). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76538-9_1
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
- Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
- Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
- One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
- I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
- Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
- In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
- Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
- Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
- Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the
- Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
- Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
- I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
- I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
- As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
- It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
- For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
- Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
- Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
- Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
- The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
- Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
- If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
- I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
- As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
- Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
- Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.
End of Life Decisions case Study Assignment
Case Study: End of Life Decisions
George is a successful attorney in his mid-fifties. He is also a legal scholar, holding a teaching post at the local university law school in Oregon. George is also actively involved in his teenage son’s basketball league, coaching regularly for their team. Recently, George has experienced muscle weakness and unresponsive muscle coordination. He was forced to seek medical attention after he fell and injured his hip. After an examination at the local hospital following his fall, the attending physician suspected that George may be showing early symptoms for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease affecting the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The week following the initial examination, further testing revealed a positive diagnosis of ALS.
ALS is progressive and gradually causes motor neuron deterioration and muscle atrophy to the point of complete muscle control loss. There is currently no cure for ALS, and the median life expectancy is between 3 and 4 years, though it is not uncommon for some to live 10 or more years. The progressive muscle atrophy and deterioration of motor neurons leads to the loss of the ability to speak, move, eat, and breathe. However, sight, touch, hearing, taste, and smell are not affected. Patients will be wheelchair bound and eventually need permanent ventilator support to assist with breathing.
George and his family are devastated by the diagnosis. George knows that treatment options only attempt to slow down the degeneration, but the symptoms will eventually come. He will eventually be wheelchair bound and be unable to move, eat, speak, or even breathe on his own.
In contemplating his future life with ALS, George begins to dread the prospect of losing his mobility and even speech. He imagines his life in complete dependence upon others for basic everyday functions and perceives the possibility of eventually degenerating to the point at which he is a prisoner in his own body. Would he be willing to undergo such torture, such loss of his own dignity and power? George thus begins inquiring about the possibility of voluntary euthanasia.
Based on the attached \”Case Study: End of Life Decisions,\” the Christian worldview, and the worldview questions presented in the required topic Resources you will complete an ethical analysis of George\’s situation and his decision from the perspective of the Christian worldview. Provide a 1,500-2,000-word ethical analysis while answering the following questions: How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the fallenness of the world? How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the hope of resurrection? As George contemplates life with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), how would the Christian worldview inform his view about the value of his life as a person? What sorts of values and considerations would the Christian worldview focus on in deliberating about whether or not George should opt for euthanasia? Given the above, what options would be morally justified in the Christian worldview for George and why? Based on your worldview, what decision would you make if you were in George\’s situation? Please use the attached document titled \”Death, Dying and Grief\” as one of the references.
Case Study Healing and Autonomy Assignment
PLEASE SEE THE ATTCHED DOCUMENTS. CHART FOR TOPIC 3 IS ATTACHED. PLEASE USE THE REFERENCES ATTACHED.
In addition to the topic Resources, use the chart you completed and questions you answered in the Topic 3 about \”Case Study: Healing and Autonomy\” as the basis for your responses in this assignment. Answer the following questions about a patient\’s spiritual needs in light of the Christian worldview.
In 200-250 words, respond to the following: Should the physician allow Mike to continue making decisions that seem to him to be irrational and harmful to James, or would that mean a disrespect of a patient\’s autonomy? Explain your rationale.
In 400-500 words, respond to the following: How ought the Christian think about sickness and health? How should a Christian think about medical intervention? What should Mike as a Christian do? How should he reason about trusting God and treating James in relation to what is truly honoring the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence in James\’s care?
In 200-250 words, respond to the following: How would a spiritual needs assessment help the physician assist Mike determine appropriate interventions for James and for his family or others involved in his care?
Applying the Four Principles: Case Study
Part 1: Chart (60 points)
Based on the “Healing and Autonomy”
case study, fill out all the relevant boxes below. Provide the information by means of bullet points or a well-structured paragraph in the box. Gather as much data as possible.
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
|The parents took the patient to the hospital for presenting symptoms related to A Streptococcus infection that led to Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis (PSGN).
The patient had an acute kidney injury and hypertension as a consequence of the PSGN.
Part of the care plan was blood pressure control and dialysis.
Because the initial condition was not treated early, the patient suffered complications such as chronic kidney disease.
The patient required dialysis as a permanent treatment and a kidney transplant.
|The patient’s relatives were the legal guardians who had the legal authority to make decisions related to treatment. According to the case study, the doctor discussed with the family the treatment required to treat the acute renal failure and the hypertension. However, it did not appear that the physician presented an informed choice to the relatives and did not emphasize the seriousness of the complications and the urgency of treating an acute condition that could be reversed with treatment. This lack of information from the doctor did not give the relatives the alternatives to choose the therapeutic options and they decided to appeal to their religious beliefs.
The patient now requires a kidney transplant since the damage to the kidneys is irreversible. It seems that the autonomy of the relatives was violated again by not discussing the treatments to be chosen, such as hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, which allow the patient to lead a normal life until a good candidate for the transplant donation is found. This lack of information put the family in a dilemma to decide whether his brother would donate the kidney or not since he was the only match available at that time.
|Quality of Life
Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy
Justice and Fairness
|The patient could recover the kidney conditions by providing an early dialysis treatment and controlling the blood pressure. As a result of the lack of intervention, the patient acquired a chronic condition that required dialysis or kidney transplant. The new condition and the alternative of treatment could impact negatively the patient’s normal live.
The parents opted for religious healing instead of dialysis with the consent of the doctor. This decision caused a delay to the necessary treatment leading to an irreversible damage to the patient, requiring a kidney transplant. Despite their religious faith, the parents doubted their decision, believing that the complications were derived from a sin.
The physician had the legal responsibility to act in the best interests of the patient in order to provide value to the patient and to prevent the complications, but the parents were the legal guardians who had the legal authority to make decisions related to treatment.
|There were not financial factors or conflicts of interest that affected the decision-making process for the clinical treatment of the patient. Only the parents were legally able to make decisions guided by the information presented by the clinicians, and by their religious faith.
Since the parents chose the faith healing service instead medical interventions, the patient was denied justice and fairness, and as a result, their medical conditions worsen, leading to an increased risk of developing a chronic condition that impairs his quality of life. The family had a dilemma to decide whether his brother would donate the kidney or not since he was the only match available at that time.
Part 2: Evaluation
Answer each of the following questions about how the four principles and four boxes approach would be applied:
- In 200-250 words answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, how would each of the principles be specified and weighted in this case? Explain why. (45 points)
| In the United States, the four fundamental concepts of bioethics are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, all of which are intertwined and interdependent. In many cultures, autonomy is seen as the most important characteristic, followed by kindness, non-maleficence, and justice (White,2020).
In this case, the concept of autonomy should be prioritized since it underlines the need of always respecting the patient and parents’ autonomy and never interfering with it. Respect for the autonomy is more than a state of mind; it is a way of doing that recognizes and even promotes the patient’s capacity to care for himself or herself (White,2020). According to the case study, the doctor met with the patient’s family to discuss the treatment options for acute renal failure and hypertension. But it did not seem that the physician provided the parents with an informed choice, nor did he underline the seriousness of the consequences or the need of treating an acute disease that was potentially reversible with therapy. Because of the lack of information, the relatives were unable to make informed decisions about the treatment choices available to them, and they were forced to turn to their religious beliefs for guidance.
The principle of beneficence that promotes the benefit of the patient while also taking proactive steps to prevent and remove harm from the patient was taken in consideration (McCormick, 2018). The patient’s parents placed their confidence in the health-care system when they decided to admit him to the hospital, believing that it was in the patient’s best interests at the moment. The physician was legally required to work in the best interests of the patient in order to give value to them while also preventing and alleviating any complication or issues that may arise. Blood pressure management and dialysis were included in the treatment plan, which may have been implemented after the patient had signs and symptoms of acute renal failure that may have been reversed with hospital treatment.
- In 200-250 words answer the following: According to the Christian worldview, how might a Christian balance each of the four principles in this case? Explain why. (45 points)
| Bioethics is an ethical field whose goal is to try to provide a solution to the ethical difficulties that arise as a consequence of scientific breakthroughs while taking a long-term perspective on life. In order to achieve its objectives, it is based on four bioethical principles, which have elevated this subject to one of the most important topics in contemporary research. Bioethics is based on four principles: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, all of which are intertwined and interdependent. In many cultures, independence is seen as the most important characteristic, followed by kindness, non-maleficence, and justice (White,2020).
In the case study, it is clear that the patient’s family had a strong religious faith that helped them in making decisions. A clear and better communication on the part of the clinicians related to the seriousness of the complications, the benefits of the treatment and the therapeutic options, would have contributed to respecting the autonomy of the patient and their relatives and in making a better decision that would benefit to the patient. The combination of the therapeutic efforts required to improve the patient’s health condition with religious faith without undermining any option, exalting the principle of beneficence. This approach would also have reflected fairness in making the best decision. The optimal solution for the patient after his condition was identified would have been temporary dialysis to assist alleviate the fluid build-up and decrease his high blood pressure, in accordance with the beneficence and non-maleficence criteria, as previously stated.
Hoehner, P. J. (2020). Biomedical ethics in the Christian narrative. In Grand Canyon University
(Ed.). Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Decision Making in Health Care. https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3
McCormick, T.R. (2018). Principles of bioethics. Washington University Medicine, Department
of Bioethics and Humanities. https://depts.washington.edu/bhdept/ethics-medicine/bioethics-topics/articles/principles-bioethics