What is the prevalence of the exposure within both outcomes? Report in %.

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What is the prevalence of the exposure within both outcomes? Report in %.

What is the prevalence of the exposure within both outcomes? Report in %.

Part I: For each example below indicate: (0.5 point each)

Whether it is a case series, ecological, or cross-sectional study;

Unit of analysis;

Whether it is possible to calculate incidence, prevalence, both, or neither;

Briefly explain your answer to c. above

Questionnaires were mailed to every 10th person listed in the city telephone directory. Each person was asked to list age, sex, smoking habits, and respiratory symptoms during the preceding seven days. About 20% of the questionnaires were completed and returned. About 10% of respondents reported having upper respiratory symptoms.

Type of study:

Unit of analysis:

Type of calculation:

Explanation:

At a major regional hospital, 200 cancer patients were interviewed and asked about smoking history, alcohol consumption, diet, and other behavioral factors.

Type of study:

Unit of analysis:

Type of calculation:

Explanation:

In a large metropolitan county in the US, data on median income for households in census tracts were obtained from the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey. Air pollution levels were measured in these same Census tracts during a period of one month. The data were analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS) to produce maps showing pollution and income levels by Census tract.

Type of study:

Unit of analysis:

Type of calculation:

Explanation:

Part II. You design a cross-sectional study to investigate smoking and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). PVD is a disease of blood vessels outside the heart, in which the extremities do not receive enough blood flow to keep up with demand. People with PVD experience symptoms such as leg pain when walking. Your data collection yields the following information:

Total respondents: 3,026

Total smokers: 1,727

Total with PVD: 31

Total nonsmokers without PVD: 1,291

Identify the exposure and health outcome. (0.5 point)

Construct a 2×2 table using the information above. Correctly label rows and columns.

(1 point)

Total

Total

What is the prevalence of the outcome within both exposures? Report in %. (0.5 point)

What is the prevalence of the exposure within both outcomes? Report in %. (0.5 point)

From your findings, is it possible to establish whether the exposure preceded the outcome? Explain your answer. (1 point)

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